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Water and Waste Management

Proper wastewater treatment methods have become crucial due to population increase in urban communities which has led to the proportional increase in the volume of wastewater and in the amount of organic waste. All disposal methods result in such unsatisfactory outcomes that remedial measures become paramount hence the development of wastewater treatment methods prior to when eventual disposal has to be commenced. Wastewater treatment methods are designed to remove enough organic and inorganic solids from the wastewater so that it can be disposed off without infringing on the set objectives.

The advancement of self-purification of a stream can be measured by proper physical, chemical and biological laboratory tests. Similar tests are used to measure and control the progress of wastewater treatment methods.

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Chemical treatment involves using some chemical reaction or reactions to improve the water quality. Probably, chlorination is the most commonly used chemical process. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing chemical, it is used to kill bacteria and slow down the rate of wastewater decomposition. Bacterial death is achieved when key biological processes are affected by the chlorine. Ozone is another strong oxidizing agent that has also been used as an oxidizing disinfectant.

Physical methods involve techniques where no gross chemical or biological changes are involved and physical phenomena are strictly used to treat the wastewater. These techniques may include: coarse screening to get rid of larger entrained objects and sedimentation.

Micro-organisms, mostly bacteria, are used in the biochemical decomposition of wastewater to stable end products. More micro-organisms are formed and a portion of the waste is converted to carbon dioxide, water and other end products. Usually, biological wastewater treatment methods can be divided into aerobic and anaerobic methods, based on availability of dissolved oxygen.

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